- Egypt is in the northwest corner of Africa. It’s the Arab world’s most populous country—87 percent of its people are Muslim. Its capital is Cairo. A part of Egypt called the Sinai Peninsula connects to western Asia, where Egypt and Israel share a border.
- Israel is a western Asian country on the east shore of the Mediterranean Sea. Its government reports that a majority of its citizens are Jewish.
- In a building in Cairo, Israel has an embassy where Israel’s ambassador to Egypt and other diplomats work.
- Egyptian demonstrators: These are Egyptian citizens who are not happy with Egypt’s relations with Israel, among other things like the way new governors were selected. Many young and politically involved citizens are unhappy. But many of the 3,000 responsible for recent incidents are described as Ultras—tough, often violent soccer fans.
- Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF): This group of Egyptian military leaders is currently in charge in Egypt. The former president, Hosni Mubarak, gave them power after protesters urged him to leave. According to Egypt’s state website, SCAF consists of 18 military leaders. They made changes to Egypt’s constitution and plan to hold elections by November. They also appointed new governors, and political analysts and protestors who kicked Mubarak out weren’t happy with their selection.
- Benjamin Netanyahu: He’s the Prime Minister of Israel. He’s been called stubborn and resilient in the face of recent Middle Eastern unrest.
- Palestinian/Israeli conflict: Jewish Israelis and Islamic Palestinians have been fighting over land in Israel since the early 1900’s.
The Palestinians claim that since they were there before Israelis, they deserve the land. However, both Jews and Muslims have important religious reasons for wanting to live there. Different settlement plans have been proposed by different groups, but conflict continues. The Israel Central Bureau of Statistics says Israel is more than 75 percent Jewish and almost 17 percent Muslim. But some Palestine supporters don’t trust those numbers.
This conflict has contributed to the traditional tension between Israel and the Arab world.
- 1979 Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty: Egypt and Israel signed this treaty after decades’ worth of conflict between Israel and surrounding Arab nations. It ended the war, and it said that both countries would keep troops out of the Sinai Peninsula. The US agreed to fund Egypt’s military if Egypt stuck to this treaty.
- Sinai Peninsula Attacks: In August 2011, attackers crossed into Israel from Egypt, killed 8 Israelis and hurt 30 more. The attackers came from the Sinai Peninsula, but no one is sure of whom they were associated with. Some people said their actions showed the world that SCAF wasn’t good at ruling its people.
- Israelis struck back. The ensuing fight killed three Egyptian border guards, which angered the protesters that kicked Mubarak out. They thought SCAF should bring Egypt’s ambassador in Israel home and make Israel’s ambassador in Egypt go home. SCAF didn’t do this because they wanted to maintain peaceful relationships with Israel, perhaps to keep getting US military funding.
- On September 9, 2011, Egyptian demonstrators attacked the Israeli embassy building. They knocked down the wall surrounding it and went inside, where they threw documents out of windows.
The Israeli ambassador and 85 other diplomats weren’t hurt. Some say they were escorted out by the Egyptian military and flown home to Israel, but others think the Egyptian military didn’t help in their escape. The military also tried to stop the demonstrators, but not until they knocked the wall down. Some people think the military let this happen on purpose, to make the demonstrators look worthy of harsher discipline, or maybe even to justify postponing elections.
Repercussions and Future:
- Egypt-Israel relations were already tense. Now, things are looking even tenser. Israeli diplomats, officials, and Netanyahu have condemned the attacks. But the US and other countries might be getting frustrated with Netanyahu’s stubborn attitude, leaving Israel disadvantaged in its foreign relations.
Netanyahu also discussed what the attacks might say about SCAF’s ability to govern, suggesting along with others that they have little control. SCAF has vowed to change this by using emergency law, which allows for increased policing and suspension of constitutional rights.
This has sparked talk of more protests. Protesters wanted Mubarak to leave Egypt because he was ruling under emergency law. They feel like Egypt is drifting into the same situation again.
Where’s Gaddafi? The situation in Libya is all over the news. But unless you’ve been following since February, the finer points might be a little vague.
Here are the basics and background of what’s going on in Libya:
1. Libya’s geography
Libya is a country in north central Africa. It’s a bit bigger than Alaska, and it has a lot of oil. Its capital is Tripoli, located on the north coast near the Mediterranean Sea. Benghazi is another major city, on the coast and east of Tripoli.
2. Key players
- Gaddafi: Muammar Gaddafi has been in charge of Libya since 1969, when he led rebels who overthrew a king.
Oh, the irony.
- Rebels: This group of Libyans wants Gaddafi to step down. Some media treats their identity as controversial. But like any group, generalizations are hard to make. Young students, ex-military officials, Islamists and unemployed Libyans have been identified among them.
- National Transitional Council: this is a rebel group that says it will guide the country until a new government is formed. It’s the closest thing to a government Libya has right now.
Libya’s rebellion began after protests broke out in nearby countries. The first protests occurred when Gaddafi’s government arrested a human rights advocate. Then protests got bigger. Rebels created Facebook events and used Twitter to spread the word.
(Some conspiracy theorists believe the protests weren’t so organic, and were instead encouraged by the CIA. They think the US wanted Gaddafi out because he might have restricted US access to Libyan oil.)
Rebels accuse Gaddafi of exploiting Libya’s people and resources. They say he’s supported terrorism and used Libya’s funds for himself. Studies show Libya was tied for the fourth most censored press worldwide. 20 percent of citizens were unemployed. Political parties were illegal and the U.S. State Department says families of government oppositionists were denied food and water.
The rebels wanted this to change. Gaddafi didn’t.
Here’s a timeline of what happened next:
- February 2011: Some protesters were peaceful, but some burned buildings. Gaddafi sent his government and military major cities to stop the rioters, and sometimes shoot them.
- February 26-28 the UN tried to stop international trade with Gaddafi’s government to punish them.
- February 27: The National Transitional Council formed in Benghazi to organize the rebels’ fight.
- March 16: Gaddafi tried to attack the rebels in Benghazi.
- March 17: The UN said other countries could send their militaries to keep Libyan citizens safe.
- March 19: The US and lots of other UN members sent forces to attack Gaddafi’s troops from the air. After this, the battle started to look better for the rebels.
- August 21: Rebel forces attacked Tripoli, where Gaddafi lived. There wasn’t much struggle, but Gaddafi and his family got away.
- August 24: Rebels are offering 1.3 million dollars for his capture.
- August 27: Lots of dead bodies were found in Tripoli. Some were killed by Gaddafi’s forces, and some by rebels. Many of Tripoli’s citizens are without electricity and water. The National Transitional Council is trying to fix this.
- August 29: Gaddafi’s family is in Algeria.
- August 30: Rebels thought Gaddafi was hiding in his hometown. They surrounded it and gave him four days to surrender before they attack.
- August 31: Rebels claim to have Gaddafi surrounded in another town 5 hours away from his hometown.
And here’s a look at what might happen in the future:
For Gaddafi: The National Transitional Council claims to know where Gaddafi is. They say they’ll give him a fair trial if they catch him.
For his supporters: Many who fought for Gaddafi have surrendered, but the future is unclear for others. In some similar situations, special councils have been formed to help settle differences among a new government’s citizens. But other post-conflict situations have been messier.
For the Libyan people: For now, the National Transitional Council is in charge. The UN gave the them $1.5 billion of money it had seized from Gaddafi to start rebuilding infrastructure. The Council plans to draft a new constitution, but this might be tough given their diverse makeup. They released a report that says they want to make a multi-party democracy that gets many of its laws from Islamic Law, and they’re meeting in Paris soon with other world leaders to plan for the future.